Network November 2019

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NETWORK / 33 / NOVEMBER 2019 Electricity Transmission facility operating on behalf of network owners and operators to de-risk HVDC integration within GB. The centre combines a range of state-of-the-art analytical and testing capabilities together with specialist personnel to support and de-risk the integration of HVDC schemes on the GB grid. The HVDC Centre has recently supported the Scottish government (together with GB transmission network stake- holders) to investigate how to maximise the use of HVDC schemes to support Black Start energisation, with in-depth studies on how HVDC schemes can support Black Start and system restoration. The scope of the centre's study comprised: a detailed literature review of HVDC technology status and international experience on HVDC-led Black Start; methodical analysis of HVDC applications against GB Black Start services re- quirements; evaluation of a case study on restoration of Scotland and north east England consider- ing key capabilities needed; and developing speci„ c recommenda- tions to enhance the use of HVDC links for providing Black Start. In consultation with industry stakeholders, the work con- cludes that there are key areas in Black Start control system design and testing that would bene„ t from early speci„ cation and de„ nition to minimise cost to the end consumer from using HVDC for Black Start. It recommends that combin- ing factory testing of HVDC converter control and protection systems, together with „ eld tri- als and operator training, would build con„ dence in the robust- ness of an HVDC-led Black Start operation. The study also identi„ es that there are bene„ ts from comple- menting this HVDC-led Black Start strategy with the use of synchronous condensers within the network being restored; and that clarity and review of the service de„ nitions of Black Start technical requirements would be of value to enable these op- tions. Mock run through For the case study looking at a hypothetical Black Start in Scot- land and north east England, the HVDC Centre concluded that the expected capabilities and high capacities of the future HVDC links could deliver the required Black Start ability for that area (assuming the appro- priate control system enhance- ments are implemented). Figure 1 (above, leˆ ) illus- trates the existing and planned HVDC schemes considered in the case study of Scotland and north east England. The two zones have three existing HVDC schemes (Moyle, Western Link, and Caithness-Moray) and could host around four additional HVDC schemes by 2028. The future HVDC schemes expected in that area include two cross- border interconnections (North Sea Link (NSL) and NorthCon- nect, between GB mainland and Norway), two embedded schemes (Eastern Link) and two Island connections (to Shetland and Western Isles). It should be noted that contracting for HVDC intercon- nector Black Start services represents an additional area to the current legal agreements governing interconnectors. The strategy and requirements for Black Start services would be managed via market arrange- ments where the National Grid ESO has responsibility, and on which it would conduct separate consultations. The „ ndings from this investigation will be available in a public report, which will be published on the HVDC Centre website when „ nalised. The report concludes that there is an opportunity for government and industry to engage at an early stage with the developers of planned cross-border HVDC schemes (see listing, above) to ensure appropriate control sys- tems for provision of Black Start and system restoration services are included within these future HVDC schemes. This article is adapted from the full report, "Maximising HVDC Support for GB Black Start and System Restoration", prepared by: Oluwole Daniel Adeuyi; Abdullah Emhemed; Simon Gill; Benjamin Marshall and Simon Marshall. Current and future HVDC schemes in GB Interconnectors currently in operation in 2019: • BritNed – an independent joint venture with TenneT, the transmis- sion system operator covering the Netherlands and a large part of Germany, has connected the UK and the Netherlands since 2011. • EWIC – also know as the East-West Interconnector, linking GB to the Republic of Ireland. In operation since 2013. •IFA – link between the UK and France, operated with French elec- tricity transmission system operator RTE since 1986. •NEMO Link – a joint venture with Belgium's transmission system operator Elia, connecting the UK and Belgium since January 2019. • Moyle – link between GB and Northern Ireland, owned and operated by Mutual Energy Limited. In operation since April 2002. Embedded within GB grid in operation in 2019: •Caithness-Moray – connects the electricity grid on either side of the Moray Firth in Northern Scotland, using two mainland VSC stations linked by underground and subsea cables. Ability to accelerate Black Start restoration in Northern Scotland. Completion date 2018. •Western Link – connects the electricity grid in England and Scotland using two mainland LCC stations linked by underground and subsea cables. Completion date 2017. Interconnectors under construction in 2019: • Eleclink – the second link to France via the Channel Tunnel, ex- pected to be completed in mid-2020. • IFA2 – the third link to France is jointly developed by National Grid Ventures with RTE, and expected to be operational in 2020. • North Sea Link – developed by National Grid Ventures with Statnett, which owns and operates the power grid in Norway, this will be the world's longest subsea interconnector when operational in 2021. • Viking Link – National Grid Ventures is developing a link between the UK and Denmark together with Energinet, the Danish national transmission system operator for electricity and natural gas. It is due to be operational in 2023. DECENTRALISATION 12 The next generation of interconnection Viking Link FAB Link IFA East-West Moyle 12 Connecting for a smarter future Connecting for a smarter future 13 Neu Connect NSL Viking Link Nemo FAB Link Green Link Moyle IFA2 The UK is expanding its interconnection options to increase the benefits to consumers. Current and future GB interconnectors East-West North Connect Aquind IFA BritNed GridLink ElecLink GERMANY DENMARK NORWAY FRANCE WALES ENGLAND IRELAND NORTHERN IRELAND SCOTLAND BELGIUM NETHERLANDS Existing project Under construction Under development Project Go-live date IFA 1986 Moyle 2002 BritNed 2011 East-West 2012 Nemo 2019 ElecLink 2019 IFA2 2020 NSL 2021 Green Link 2021 FAB Link 2022 North Connect 2022 Neu Connect 2022 GridLink 2022 Aquind 2022 Viking Link 2023

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